Orthopedic Institute was found thanks to initiative and great persistence of one of the largest of its time orthopedists Karl Horn. Initially, the role of the head of the institute was officially meant to him - a widely recognized specialist and initiator of Institute creation, but Karl Horne died on September 2 in 1905.
In 1906 Roman Vreden became the first director of the Institute. He was graduate of the Military Medical Academy, experienced general surgeon, founder of operative orthopedics in Russia and talented teacher.
By the time of its opening the main building had three floors. On the ground floor were placed: emergency department, isolation ward, orthopedic workrooms, kitchen and staff dormitory. On the second floor were: outpatient department, pharmacy, X-ray room, library, director’s appartment and three rooms for the younger assistants. On the third: 13 hospital wards, operating unit, two dressing wards and dormitory for nurses. Between second and third floor gymnasium was set, and on the third floor - a church with a bell tower which was used in off-duty hours as an audience. Beautiful garden was laid out around the Institute.
In 1924 Orthopaedic Institute which was headed by Roman Vreden over 18 years, and Physio-Surgical Institute headed by Alexey Polenov were consolidated on the basis of Orthopaedic Institute by the order of Nikolay Semashko. Hereby Petrograd National Traumatological Institute was found and headed by Director, Professor Alexey Polenov.
In 1931 F. Mashansky who headed healthcare department of Petrograd district until his appointment, became director of the Institute. During this period many well-known professionals of medecine were invited in the Institute.
In June 1950 Professor V.Sazontov was appointed director of the institute, the surgeon who carried out the decisions of the Certification Commission about the Prohibition of combining jobs. The Institute was in very difficult circumstances as the leading professionals were dismissed.
From 1956 to 1977 honored Scientist, Professor V.Balakina directed the Institute. In 1974 Institute was awarded he Order of Red Standard of Labor for merits in development of public health, medical science and teaching.
In 1978 Professor V.Demyanov was appointed director of the institute, a graduate of the Military Medical Academy, who had worked at the department of military trauma for 30 years.
In 1986, Ph.D. N. Kornilov became the director of the Institute. In 1988, the Institute moved to a new building, meant for 830 beds and equipped with modern equipment.
Since 2003 director of the institute was Professor R. Tikhilov, a graduate of the Military Medical Academy, talented surgeon and brilliant organizer. In 2006, the institute became the head hospital for high-tech medical care in Russia in the specialty "Orthopedics".